What is LNG?
LNG is an abbreviation for Liquefied Natural Gas. It is currently one of the most promising sources of energy because of the possibility of supplying natural gas to Customers not having access to the transmission network. When condensation, its volume is reduced 630 times, which facilitates storage and transportation over long distances. In such areas, regasification terminals are built, allowing a change of state from a liquid into a gas. After regasification, the gas is supplied via pipelines to business or individual recipients.
How is LNG formed?
The LNG is formed by the liquefaction of natural gas, which means a transition from the gas phase to the liquid phase. This is possible at a right pressure and at a temperature below the critical. The gas must first be properly dried; carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, nitrogen and heavy hydrocarbons have to be removed. To dry the gas from the steam, adsorption on a bed of molecular sieves is most frequently used; heavy hydrocarbons and acid gases are also removed through the process of adsorption. In the case of removal of nitrogen, low-temperature distillation is used. After removing the above-mentioned substances, exceptionally pure gas is obtained, consisting of approx. 95% of methane, and only 5% of other components.
The method of LNG transport depends on the demand for gas. Huge amounts of liquefied natural gas are transported by sea on LNG carriers with a carrying capacity of up to 216 thousand m3, which corresponds to 136 million Nm3 of network gas. On LNG carriers, the LNG is stored in special containers adapted to the temp. of -162°C, made from steel of highest quality.
In railway transport, tank cars with a carrying capacity of up to 76 thousand litres are used. Smaller quantities of LNG are transported in tankers with a carrying capacity of up to 47 thousand litres in form of semitrailers for trucks or in dedicated tank trucks with a carrying capacity of 57 thousand litres.
- SAFETY AND COMFORT – liquefied natural gas, being lighter than air, evaporates quickly, and its additional advantage is the lack of solid combustion wastes like ash or slag.
- SAVINGS – achieved by reducing environmental charges, the cost of building and maintenance of boiler and fuel storage.
- HIGHER EFFICIENCY – liquefied gas fuel can be fully controlled, enabling planning of costs and precise consumption.
- OPTIMIZATION OF EMPLOYMENT – LNG-powered boiler room is handled automatically.
- COMPLIANCE WITH ENVIRONMENTAL STANDARDS – using LNG allows production facilities to meet strict environmental standards.
- INDEPENDENT ENERGY SOURCE – due to the reduced volume, LNG can be easily stored.
- CONSTANT FUEL AVAILABILITY – gas supplier constantly monitors the amount of gas in the terminal and at the right time provides it with tankers.