What is liquefied gas?
LPG (Liquefied Petroleum Gas) is the general name of the mixtures of propane and butane (in various proportions). Used as gas, it is stored in containers under pressure as a liquid. LPG is without a doubt one of the most attractive fuels in the world – efficient, versatile and safe in use. It gives instant heat, makes it possible to control flame and temperature easily. LPG is one of the cleanest energy sources in use. It burns without emitting pollution or smell, and its complete combustion products are carbon dioxide and water.
Where is liquefied gas used?
LPG is one of the most versatile fuel feeds. There are more than 1,000 uses of liquefied gas, and the most popular ones are:
- transport (autogas),
- cooking (gas cylinders),
- heating and air-conditioning (tank installations).
What liquefied gas is available in the market?
LPG is obtained from two essential sources. It is formed as a result of natural processes in the natural gas and petroleum deposits (natural-origin gas) or is obtained as one of the by-products in refining process (artificial origins). In Poland, the dominating method of obtaining liquefied gases is the process of processing petroleum in refinery plants. Propane-butane is then formed during the process called cracking and also in the course of a petroleum hydration. Gases of which the LPG mixture is composed of are also found in the natural deposits of natural gas, therefore, LPG may be obtained at the moment of its mining. Similarly to what is the case for natural gas and petroleum, liquefied gas is also the result of natural metamorphoses of living organisms remnants in hydrocarbons.
Natural LPG in Poland
Mining the LPG of natural origin in Poland is conducted by Polish Petroleum and Gas Mining (PGNiG). PGNiG S.A.’s gas is obtained from natural gas deposits, as well as those of petroleum. In Poland, however, the vast majority of gas of natural origin is imported from Russia. The largest supplier of the gas of natural origin from Russia is the Novatek company. The Purovsky plant, being the property of Novatek PAO and located in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, providing 20% of the global gas mining, produces as many as 1.3 million tons of LPG a year.
LPG What is worth paying attention to while choosing LPG
While choosing an LPG, particular attention should be paid to sulfur contents, because sulfur compounds and water contents in the gas influences increased corrosion. Sulfur dioxide formed as a result of combustion exerts adverse influence on the environment and also on catalytic combustion systems (it decreases its pollution reduction ability). In LPGs of natural origins, the lowest level of sulfur content (as a rule, below 30 mg/kg) is observed (the PN-EN 589 norm permits sulfur contents after adding odorizing substances at the maximum level of 50 mg/kg).
The advantages of LPG
LPG obtained in natural gas mining process has a unique natural origin and, thanks to that, very stable quality parameters. It is included into unusually clean gases, which is of enormous importance while it is in use. Moreover, it is characterized by a much lower greenhouse gases emission level, which is favourable for the environment. As far as the protection of the environment is concerned, it is good to pay attention to comparative data concerning the total greenhouse emission in the LPG life-cycle, taking under consideration all the stages commencing with its production until being used, for example, in a car (autogas). Taking under consideration the manner of forming, transport, condensation and also distribution alike, we ultimately obtain total emission, which, in case of natural gas is lower nearly by half in comparison with the gas obtained in petroleum processing in refinery plants.*
* C. Stiller, P. Schmidt, W. Weindorf, Z. Mátra „CNG AND LPG FOR TRANSPORT IN GERMANY ENVIRONMENTAL PERFORMANCE AND POTENTIALS FOR GHG EMISSION REDUCTIONS UNTIL 2020” AN EXPERTISE FOR ERDGAS MOBIL, OMV, AND SVGW